Hydraulic Shock in Ammonia Systems
Hydraulic Shock in Ammonia Systems (1989)-Since my first hydraulic shock failure case, I have worked on several others. Failure sizes have varied from 1 1/4" to 24" in circumference. All have started in welds. All have been associated with low temperature systems with refrigerant temperatures below -20°F. All have been associated with hot gas defrost. Where analytical calculations have been done, estimated surges have been at pressures above relief valve settings but there has never been evidence of the relief valves lifting. Failures have always been associated with excess liquid in the failed component and there was always the possibility that the component was completely full of liquid.
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