Refrigeration Piping: A Simplified Guide to a Modern Approac
Refrigeration Piping: A Simplified Guide to a Modern Approach (2005)-The paper examines issues faced by engineers, contractors and owners when designing, installing and operating refrigeration piping. It reviews piping mechanical design by discussing applicable piping codes and the suitability of piping, castings, bolting and gasket materials as well as welding methods for low-, normal- and high-temperature service. It then analyzes pipe-sizing methods for a variety of applications, emphasizing the effects of undersizing or oversizing liquid piping, vapor lines and control valves. This evaluation is followed by a discussion on piping layout issues, in particular, layout of compressor suction mains, wet suction returns, elevated equipment and condensers. The paper concludes with a presentation of special cases such as thermal expansion in liquid CO2 and subcooled refrigerant lines, vapor condensation in hot gas and instrument tubing, liquid hammer, liquid carryover, internal and external corrosion, and a comparison of pumped and gravity-fed overfeed systems.
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