System Design for Industrial Ammonia/CO2 Cascade Installatio
System Design for Industrial Ammonia/CO2 Cascade Installations (2006)-Restrictions in using CFC, HCFC, and even HFC refrigerants are tightening in most countries. Potentially, this leaves natural refrigerants, such as ammonia, CO2, propane, butane, etc. as the only practical choices. However, hydrocarbon refrigerants such as propane and butane are highly flammable and explosive and, as such, will probably never be widely used refrigerants. For most industrial refrigeration installations, the choice will be between systems using ammonia alone and systems using cascaded ammonia/CO2. In addition, many countries/states are increasingly restricting ammonia charge sizes, and many end users do not want ammonia in work, process, or storage areas. As a result, ammonia/CO2 cascade systems are becoming a popular solution all over the world. This paper describes various system design solutions for cascade systems. Selection of components, sizing of valves, relief valves pipes and vessels are discussed. Finally, the paper discusses safety precautions for operating and servicing ammonia/CO2 cascade systems.
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