Use of Natural Refrigerants in Europe: A Long History, a Gr
Use of Natural Refrigerants in Europe: A Long History, a Great Future, Perfect Now (2016)-Natural refrigerants have been proven efficient well-known agents in refrigeration technology for more than a century. In recent decades, the refrigeration industry has faced many technological challenges related to refrigerants. Ozone depletion potential and global warming potential (ODP and GWP) have been hotly debated. Natural refrigerants like ammonia, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, air, and water have the potential to address challenges regarding the environment and efficient systems for users. In Europe—a so-called “classic” user of natural refrigerants—many different applications have entered the market. But what is new is the combination of already established technological ideas and new ones. Refrigeration systems are being combined, for example, ammonia/carbon dioxide cascades, secondary cooling systems, hydrocarbons in supermarket systems, and trans critical carbon dioxide systems. Refrigeration systems are also becoming the overall supplier in complex systems, taking over air conditioning, heating, and hot water supply. For example, systems for supermarket distribution centers, meat factories, and breweries with ammonia /carbon dioxide cascades also take over heating demand, while small ammonia applications work in supermarkets and in breweries. Thus, boundaries start to disappear as refrigeration systems also work as heat pumps, making it hard to decide whether it is a refrigeration system or a heat pump system. This paper describes some well-established applications of natural refrigerants.
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