The IIAR Technical Program is the core of the Annual IIAR Conference. It is a series of presentations which include rigorously peer-reviewed technical presentations, experiential workshops, and interactive panels. The Annual Conference offers PDH and CEU credits which can be applied to your continuing education or professional development.
2017 Technical Program
Technical Paper #1 - Michael Elstrøm - HB Products 
Monday February 27th, 2017 Convention Center – Room 221 AB (1:45 PM – 2:35 PM)
Tuesday February 28th, 2017 Convention Center – Room 221 AB (3:25 PM – 4:15 PM)
New Refrigerant Quality Measurement and Demand Defrost Methods
Description This paper describes new sensor systems and methods for optimizing Evaporator Control. Measuring Vapor Quality with a “X” sensor that detects the degree of dryness can optimize direct expansion refrigerant feed, and demand defrost sensors that measuring ice buildup on the air-cooler surface can minimize un-necessary defrost loads. The paper will cover information about sensor design, laboratory testing, system design, field tests, application, summary and Conclusions

Technical Paper #2 - Klaas Visser - KAV Consulting 
Monday February 27th, 2017 Convention Center - 221 AB (4:00 PM - 4:50 PM) 
Tuesday February 28th, 2017
 Convention Center - 221 AB (1:10 PM - 2:00 PM)
Applying NH3 Design Principles to CO2 Systems 
: The use of CO2 for both large and small refrigeration systems is becoming more popular. It is often believed that high stage CO2 applications are limited to cooler climates because of pressure and efficiency concerns. This paper examines the use of evaporative condensers to help expand the perceived boundaries of CO2 use for large systems, and provides a case study example of these principles.

Technical Paper #3 - Bas Pijnenburg - Bitzer
Monday February 27th, 2017 Convention Center - 225 CD (1:45 PM - 2:35 PM) 
Tuesday February 28th, 2017 Convention Center - 221 AB (2:05 PM - 2:55 PM) 
Parallel Operation of NH3 Screw Compressors  
 Using multiple compressors to accomplish high stage compression for low charge ammonia systems offers greater potential for efficiency benefits as compare to partial loading. Control systems are critical for optimizing staging, and minimizing compressor startups and shutdowns. Use of multiple compressors also provides a degree of redundancy that is necessary for critical operations where downtime is of great concern. This paper builds on and includes most of the results of an earlier investigation a series of compressor packs installed according to the principles found in the paper.

Technical Paper #4 - Robb N. Davis, P.E. - MIRO Industries
Monday February 27th, 2017 Convention Center - 221 CD (2:40 PM - 3:30 PM) 
Tuesday February 28th, 2017 Convention Center - 221 CD (1:10 PM - 2:00 PM) 
Code Requirements for Evaluating Rooftop Equipment and their Supports  
Description: Rooftop equipment and piping systems are subject to static and dynamic loads such as seismic and wind loads. Evaluation of these loads are required not only for holding up or stabilizing the equipment, but they are needed for compliance with code and regulatory demands. These important analyses are sometimes overlooked, or not documented and this paper summarizes the codes and standards applicable for the needed evaluations. 

Technical Paper #5 - Glenn D. Short – BVA, Inc.
Monday February 27th, 2017 Convention Center – Room 221 CD (4:55 PM – 5:45 PM) 
Tuesday February 28th, 2017 Convention Center- Room 221 CD (2:05 PM – 2:55 PM)

Assessment of Lubricants for Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Systems 
Description: The use of miscible or non-miscible lubricants can each bring some technical advantage for the performance of the refrigeration cycle. An examination of a lubricant’s chemistry, miscibility, solubility and viscosity with a refrigerant helps system engineers find the best overall balance of good compatibility, lubricity or load carrying performance and system performance. This paper presents R717 data with immiscible mineral oil synthetic hydrocarbon lubricants and a miscible polyalkylene glycol lubricant.

Technical Paper #6 - Robert A. Sterling, P.E.  – Sterling Andrews Engineering
Monday February 27th, 2017 – Convention Center – Room 221 CD (1:45 PM – 2:35 PM)
Tuesday February 28th, 2017- Convention Center – Room 225 CD (1:10 PM - 2:00 PM)

Method for Determining Best Economic Pipe Size for Ammonia Refrigeration Piping 
Description Economic pipe size is an important factor in project design and analysis for any piping system.  In the industrial ammonia refrigeration industry, where energy usage by, and maintenance of, the mechanical refrigeration system is often one of the largest operating costs, a flexible method for analysis to minimize the total life cycle cost of a piping system is desirable. This paper, resulting from an Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation funded research project, explores the method for determining a minimum header life cycle cost in order to meet this need.

Technical Paper# 7 - Mark Piegay – Alfa Laval
Monday February 27th, 2017 – Convention Center – Room 221 CD (4:00 PM – 4:50 PM) 
Tuesday February 28th, 2017 – Convention Center – Room 221 CD (3:25 PM – 4:15PM) 

Refrigeration Applications Utilizing Liquid Desiccant Dehumidification Systems   
Description: This paper explains three different scenarios where a subfreezing refrigerant is used to provide cool, humidity controlled process air with a liquid desiccant system. Each of these cases includes a discussion on how the installation’s primary refrigerant is utilized and designed.  The first case is a brewery’s fermenting cellar, the second is a meat cooler & packaging space, and the third is a cold storage staging area application.

Technical Paper #8 - Mario Mora Carli - Frigonconsult
Monday February 27th, 2017 – Convention Center – Room 221 AB (4:55 PM – 5:45 PM) – Presented in English
Tuesday February 28th, 2017 – Convention Center – Room 224 (2:05 PM – 2:55 PM) – Presented in Spanish

Study of the Energy Consumption of a CO2/NH3 Cascade Industrial Refrigeration Systems Operating in Costa Rica and Comparison with Direct Ammonia Systems in One and Two-Stage Configurations 
Description: There are many research papers in Europe and USA which claim that CO2 will offer energy savings over ammonia only below certain low suction temperatures. With the objective of providing additional knowledge and real case examples on this subject, this paper presents the study of a CO2/NH3 cascade industrial refrigeration system with over 3 years of successful operation in Costa Rica. The paper also offers a comparison with direct ammonia systems in one and two-stage configurations.

Technical Paper #9 - Stefan Jensen – Scantec Refrigeration Technologies Pty. Ltd.
Monday February 27th, 2017 – Convention Center – Room 221 AB (2:40 PM – 3:30 PM)
Tuesday February 28th 2017 – Convention Center – Room 221 AB (4:20 PM – 5:10 PM)

Energy Performance of Low Charge, Central Type, Dual Stage NH3 Refrigeration Systems in Practice 
Description: Development of low charge NH3 refrigeration systems is taking place in several jurisdictions across the world for a variety of applications. In jurisdictions where compliance costs are directly proportional with NH3 inventory, it is tempting for stakeholders to favor multiplexing as opposed to central plants. This risks the sacrifice of energy performance in return for reduction in NH3 inventory. This paper describes the energy performances of several refrigerated distribution centers with storage volumes of approximately 10,000 to 50,000 m³ (353,000 to 1,766,000 ft³). All systems are serviced by central, state of the art low charge, dual stage NH3 refrigeration systems and different solutions introduced on a case by case basis.

International Technical Program 

International Paper #1 - Enio P. Bandarra Filho - Universidade Federal De Uberlandia  
Monday, February 27th, 2017 – Covention Center Room 224 (1:45 PM – 2:35 PM) - Presented in Portuguese
Monday, February 27th, 2017 – Convention Center Room 224 (2:40 PM – 3:30 PM) – Presented in English
Investigação experimental da eficiéncia energética e impacto ambiental de um sistema de refrigeração do tipo cascata com CO2
Este trabalho apresenta uma investigação experimental de um sistema em cascata subcrítico utilizando o par de refrigerantes R744 / R134a, como opção para sistemas de expansão convencionais instalados em supermercados, que normalmente operam com refrigerantes halogenados como o R404A. Realizaram-se os testes com R134a no ciclo de HT, e posteriormente substituiu-se o refrigerante pelo hidrocarboneto R290, sem alterações nos componentes, conhecido como processo de drop-in. Variaram-se os principais parâmetros determinando o desempenho do sistema em cascata R744 / R290 e posteriormente comparados com o sistema original R744 / R134a.  
Experimental Investigation on the Performance and Global Environmental Impact of CO2 Cascade Refrigeration Systems  
This paper presents an experimental study of a subcritical cascade system using R744/R134a as an option for conventional direct expansion supermarket systems which usually operate with halogenated refrigerants such as R404A. The tests were performed replacing the HT cycle refrigerant, R134a, with the hydrocarbon R290, without changing any component, typically known as a drop-in process. The main parameters were varied to verify the range and performance of R744/R290 cascade system and then compared to the original R744/R134a system.

International  Paper #2 - Alberto Mayer - AMRISA - Spanish 
(Presentation has been canceled.  The Technical Paper will be available for Download only)
Amoniaco en sistemas de RSW
El RSW en embarcaciones pesqueras es una tecnología ampliamente difundida. Sistemas de amoníaco en recintos cerrados y estrechos en embarcaciones son comunes, pero han obligado el desarrollo sistemas más segur así renunciar a la eficiencia. Este esfuerzo ocasi onó el diseño de plantas con baja carga de refrigerante. Este trabajo recorre el desarrollo de la tecnología del RSW durante los últimos 25 años en Chile, Perú y Ecuador, mostrando las diferentes soluciones utilizadas y el esfuerzo por llegar a sistemas más seguros. 
Ammonia in Refrigerated Seawater System (RSW)
RSW in fishing vessels is a widely-used technology. Ammonia systems in closed, narrow chambers on ships are widely used and have required manufacturers and contractors to develop systems that emphasize safety without sacrificing efficiency. These efforts have focused on designing low refrigerant charge systems. This paper surveys the development of RSW technology over the last 25 years in Chile, Peru and Ecuador, describing the different solutions used and the efforts to achieve safer systems. 

International Paper #3 - Jorge Hernandez -Baltimore Aircoil  - Presented in Spanish
Monday, February 27th, 2017 – Convention Center Room 224 (4:00 PM – 4:50 PM) 
Tratamiento de agua para condensadores
Uno de los aspectos más relevantes en la operación y mantenimiento de los condensadores evaporativos es la calidad del agua que recircula por ellos. Los conceptos relacionados con el tratamiento de agua inciden en el cálculo del consumo esperado del agua durante el funcionamiento del equipo, lo que debe considerarse dentro del diseño del sistema. Este trabajo recalca el papel que cumple el tratamiento de agua en el funcionamiento de los condensadores evaporativos y aborda el manejo de los problemas de incrustación, corrosión y crecimiento biológico.
Water Treatment for Condensers
One of the most important aspects in the operation and maintenance of evaporative condensers is the quality of the water that recirculates through them. Water treatment concepts influence the calculation of the expected water consumption during the use of the equipment. This factor should be considered in the system design. This paper emphasizes the role of water treatment in the performance of evaporative condensers and how to handle problems such as scale, corrosion and biological growth.

International Paper #4 - Mario Mora Carli -University of Costa Rica - Presented in Spanish
Tuesday, February 28th, 2017 – Convention Center Room 224 (2:05 PM – 2:55 PM)
Estudio y medición del consumo energético de un sistema real de refrigeración en cascada CO2/NH3 y comparación de la eficiencia energética con varias alternativas de configuración si se hubiera diseñado con amoníaco
Varios estudios afirman que el CO2 solamente ofrece ahorros energéticos comparados con sistemas de amoníaco por debajo desiertas temperaturas de succión bajas. Considerando que en muchas latitudes la temperatura ambiente no permite trabajar con un sistema de CO2 trans-crítico, y para aportar conocimiento práctico del tema, este trabajo estudia un sistema de refrigeración industrial tipo cascada con CO2/NH3 con más de 3 años de operación satisfactoria en Costa Rica y lo compara con sistemas de NH3 de una y dos etapas.
Evaluating the Efficiency of Low Temp CO2/NH3 Project Operating in a Tropical Region and Comparing it with Different Configurations of NH3 Systems
Many research papers claim that CO2 will only offer energy savings over an ammonia system below certain low suction temperatures. Considering that the ambient temperature does not permit using transcritical CO2 in many latitudes, and in order to provide additional knowledge and real examples, this paper presents the study of a CO2/NH3 cascade industrial refrigeration system with over 3 years of successful operation in Costa Rica and compares it with direct ammonia systems in one and two-stage configurations.

International Paper #5 - Alessandro da Silva - Bitzer – Presented in Spanish
Tuesday, February 28th, 2017 – Convention Center Room 224 (3:25 PM – 4:15 PM) 
Operación en paralelo de paquetes de compresores de tornillo 
Abstracto: Paquetes de amoniaco con dos o tres compresores de tornillo más pequeños aplicados en paralelo ofrecen un camino óptimo para cumplir con la eficiencia máxima en carga parcial, aumentar la redundancia y brindan otras características altamente requeridas por el sector de refrigeración industrial de hoy. La operación en paralelo puede asegurar un funcionamiento continuo y mayor es ahorros operacionales es de toda planta. Se diseño an los nuevos compresores según los requisitos de flexibilidad operacional y control inteligente. El sistema de control mi neja todas las demandas externas, ofrece la potencia absorbida más baja posible y conectividad con redes inteligentes.
Parallel Operation of Screw Compressor Packs
Packages with two or three smaller ammonia screw compressors operating in parallel offer an optimum way to fulfil maximum part load efficiency, increase redundancy and offer other highly requested features in today’s industrial refrigeration industry. Parallel operation can secure continuous operation and lower overall operating costs. The new compressors are designed for flexible operation and intelligent control. The intelligent control system handles all external demands while working to offer the lowest possible absorbed power and features smart grid connectivity.

Workshop #1
- Ian Tuena - Australian Refrigeration Association (ARA)
Monday, February 27th, 2017 - 
 Convention Center- Room 225 AB (1:45 PM – 2:35 PM)
Natural versus Synthetic Refrigerants in Australia
The Increasing Use of Synthetic Flammable Refrigerants and Resulting Concerns. This workshop will present global environmental, political and economic concerns about the use of flammable HFCs and HFOs and the potential impact of natural refrigerants. New international agreements to reduce greenhouse gases have resulted in a major campaign to promote new flammable synthetic refrigerants while downplaying safety concerns and overlooking the benefits of natural refrigerants. The Australian example of HFC regulation will be discussed, and can be related to the global issue.   

Workshop #2 -
Ryan Wilbanks - ISN
Monday, February 27th, 2017 - 
Convention Center – Room 225 AB (2:40 PM – 3:30 PM) 
Contract Management Best Practices
Many IIAR members use contractors and subcontractors for building and refrigeration system design and construction, as well as other important projects that might include logistics, networking, automation and more. Effective contractor vetting and management is key to a successful and economical project.  This workshop will explore the means and methods of current best in class contract management practices.  

Workshop #3 - Donnie Pierce - Clemens Food Group 
Tuesday, February 28th, 2017 -
Convention CenterRoom 225 A(2:05 PM – 2:55 PM) 
Troubles and Solutions at a Large Processing Facility 
Large and mature ammonia refrigeration systems have often gone through expansions, re-arrangements, have dated controls and equipment, and have had a variety of contractors, designers and technicians performing work on them through the years.  We can all learn from others’ experiences, and this workshop will demonstrate some problems and solutions at a large processing facility that has been around for a while. 

Workshop #4 - Chris J. Carter - Nestle Dreyer's Ice Cream 
Tuesday, February 28th, 2017 -
Convention Center – Room 225 AB  (1:10 PM – 2:00 PM) 
Improved Oil Filtration
Having clean effective compressor oil is one key to compressor longevity. But the costs for compressor oil can add up. This workshop will provide one end-user’s experience in using an improved oil filtration system that resulted in economic benefits while preserving compressor integrity. 

Workshop #5 -
Bill Lape - Dean Foods 
Monday, February 27th, 2017 -
 Convention Center – Room 225 AB (4:55 PM – 5:45PM)
What is Really Needed for a Proper Management of Change
Management of change is a very important element of process safety management that does not often get discussed, and is sometimes met with confusion and apprehension. This workshop will examine the importance of management of change and review what it takes to get the job done, and documented appropriately.  

Workshop #6 - Tom Wolgamot - DC Engineering and Masood Ali - Heatcraft
Monday, February 27th, 2017 - Convention Center – Room 225 CD (4:00 PM – 5:45 PM) 
Commercial Refrigeration Applications
Supermarkets are faced with new decisions about their refrigeration methods.  The phasedown and phaseout of HFC refrigerants will demand a choice of a new refrigerant sooner or later, and the natural refrigerant industry is poised to gain some market share. This workshop will explore the issues that are creating opportunities and will present a number of issues related to supermarket systems that designers and decision makers would consider such as load profiles, the need for redundancy, parts availability and more. Note that this is a double-length workshop.

Workshop #7 Joe Sanchez - North American Sustainable Refrigerants Council (NASRC)
Monday, February 27th, 2017 -  Convention Center – Room 225 CD (2:40 PM - 3:30 PM)
North American Sustainable Refrigerants Council 
The North American Sustainable Refrigerants Council (NASRC) is a newly formed non-profit organization with many of the same goals as the IIAR.  This workshop will be presented by NASRC to introduce themselves and explain their mission and how the group intends to accomplish it. 

Workshop #8 - Harshal Surange- ACR Project Consultants 
Tuesday, February 28th, 2017 - Convention CenterRoom 225 AB (3:25 PM – 4:15 PM) 
Essentials of a Green Cold Chain Facility 
Energy efficiency and sustainability is an important consideration for cold storage facilities domestically, but perhaps more importantly globally, where water and energy resources can be scarce. This workshop will examine the essentials of designing & constructing a “Green Cold Storage Facility”. Whether or not climate change is a concern to the audience, green facilities save energy and water, and reduce the environmental impact of the facility, and eventually, saves money. 

Workshop #9 - Mark Bulmer - GF Piping Systems  
Tuesday, February 28th, 2017 -  Convention CenterRoom 225 AB (4:20 - 5:10 PM)
Indirect Refrigeration Hydraulic Loop 
Secondary loop systems are becoming more and more popular with the efforts to reduce refrigerant charges and maintain safety and flexibility.  This workshop will explore the problems and importance of secondary loop systems and propose the development of an IIAR guideline for the design of the systems.

Workshop #10 - Brent W. Robbs, CPA - Stifel, Nicolaus & Company,Inc
Tuesday, February 28th, 2017 - Convention CenterRoom 225 CD (4:20 PM – 5:10 PM)
Helping Your Families by Helping Others: A Taxpayer's Guide to Charitable Giving
This presentation focuses on charitable giving best practices for the philanthropic minded individual.  Gain a better understanding of how to structure charitable giving to maximize your benefits (income/estate tax deduction, income stream, etc.) while providing for charity.  Strategies discussed include:  gifting appreciated stock, qualified charitable distributions, donor-advised funds, pooled income funds, charitable remainder trusts, charitable lead trusts, and more.

Closing Panels and Forums 
Panel 1 – Research Panel – Wayne Wehber - Vilter Manufacturing, Lois O’Connor - Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation,Bruce Nelson - Colmac Coil, Jay Kliewer -  California Controlled Atmosphere, Jeremey Klysen - Leo A. Daly
Wednesday, March 1st, 2017 -  Convention Center Room 221 ABC (9:00 AM - 10:30 AM)
This panel will include discussions on the Ammonia Refrigeration Foundation with an overview of research projects currently underway. Topics of discussions will include information on the development of and the bid process for the Analysis and Correlation of Data from ASHRAE RP-1327 (Flow in Two-Phase Ammonia Risers) and the Development of a Mechanical Insulation Installation Guideline for Refrigeration Applications research projects as well as the current progress of CFD Simulation of Ammonia Dispersion within Refrigerated Spaces which is focused on the placement of ammonia detectors.

Panel 2 – Government Update Panel – DHS, OSHA, EPA - Moderated by Lowell Randel - IIAR
Wednesday March 1st, 2017 - Convention Center Room 225 BCD (9:00 AM - 10:30 AM) 
This panel will include a presentation from a representative from the Department of Homeland Security. An update of the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHA) current plans regarding Chemical Security Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) and how these might affect ammonia refrigeration facilities will be provided. IIAR’s Director of Government Affairs will review the EPA’s latest rulemaking and enforcement efforts, including the status of the newly issued RMP rules, and the EPA’s National Enforcement Initiative. A discussion of OSHA’s current status and efforts will also be provided.

Closing Forum – Hot Topics in Industrial Refrigeration – Gary Smith - Ammonia Safety Training Institute (ASTI), Joseph W. Pillis - Frick Industrial Refrigeration, Robert Sterling - Sterling Andrews Engineering, Don Faust - Gartner Refrigeration 
Wednesday, March 1st, 2017 - ConventionCenterRoom 221 ABC (11:00 AM - 12:30 PM) 
This panel will cover some of the most immediate issues concerning industrial refrigeration today.  Topics to be discussed include emergency response methods, high pressure cut out testing, coincident low temperature high pressure issues as well as operational containment