1992 IIAR Technical Papers
  Miami Beach, FL
 14th Annual Meeting

A Structured Approach to Energy Savings in Refrigeration
Author: Richard Crouch

This paper attempts to outline how Ontario Hydro came to the conclusion that an essential part of promoting energy efficiency in refrigeration involves conducting good quality structured energy audits. As part of the discussion, the structure of a good audit will be presented. The energy audit will be placed in the context of a comprehensive utility DSM program for industrial refrigeration which Ontario Hydro has developed. Finally, the preliminary results of this program in Ontario are described.
Using Expert Systems for Improving the Design and Operation of Refrigeration Plants
Author: Ray Gluckman

This paper describes two Refrigeration Expert Systems which have been developed by the author's company with financial support from a number of organizations including Ontario Hydro, the UK Energy Efficiency Office and a number of industrial end users. The two systems described are: a) MENTOR, a Refrigeration Fault Diagnostic System for use by plant operators to ensure the maintenance of high efficiency operation over long periods of time, and MOSAIC, a Refrigeration Design and Auditing System to assist engineers with many of the steps they must undertake during the design of new plant or the audit of existing systems.
Increasing Refrigeration System Efficiencies in 1992: The Clever 
Author: Philip Golden

Increasing the energy performance of refrigeration systems is becoming increasingly important to plant managers in 1992. Trimming operating costs allows an organization to stay one step ahead of competition. There are numerous issues which negatively impact refrigeration system efficiency. Many plants built before 1975 were not designed with a significant focus on efficiency. Even today, budgetary constraints often force an owner to install a less than ideal system. Also, it is common for plants to expand and become permanently altered over decades. Undoubtedly, they do not resemble in 1992 their original efficient design concept. Finally, the CFC dilemma offers an opportunity for major system conversions to ammonia.
Conserving Energy and Obtaining Utility Rebates in Ice Cream Manufacturing Operations: H.P. Hood Inc. Case Study
Author: John H. Johnson, P.E.

A wide variety of energy conservation measures were installed at an H. P. Hood Inc. ice cream manufacturing plant in Suffield, CT, which together resulted in a 20% decrease in refrigeration electrical energy consumption. Measures implemented included: conversion of air-cooled R-502 units to central ammonia, addition of a fourth refrigerant pipe for relief of defrost to the intermediate system, high efficiency screw ammonia compressors to replace older reciprocating compressors, evaporator and ductwork modifications to reduce fan horsepower requirements, and an energy management system to optimize the operation of compressors, evaporators, and evaporative condensers. All measures were evaluated before installation using a detailed energy simulation model to determine annual energy consumption and peak energy consumption on the existing system and after installation of each measure. Verification of actual savings was accomplished using direct measurements and operating logs recorded by the new energy management system computer. Utility rebates totaling over $500,000 are expected based on approval of the verification methodology and test results, resulting in a payback period of 1.0 years for the $675,000 project.
Comprehensive Energy Cost Reduction Study for a Frozen Dinner Manufacturing Facility Using Computer Simulation Model
Author: Thomas L. Tsaros

A computer simulation model of an industrial, central refrigeration plant was successfully implemented and run in order to perform a comprehensive, energy cost reduction study of a frozen dinner manufacturing facility. The purpose of the study was to determine the qualification of several energy conservation measures for utility financial rebates. This paper presents the results of this study and the methodologies applied to obtain them, and a critical evaluation of these results.
Hot Gas Defrost Systems for Large Evaporators in Ammonia Liquid Overfeed Systems
Author: George C. Briley, P.E. and Thomas A. Lyons

Hot gas defrost system requires detailed engineering analysis as they become larger and larger. Other types of defrost, particularly "water", should be considered where large evaporators require a short defrost interval.  Familiarize yourself with the articles mentioned in the bibliography before designing a defrost system for large evaporators.
Ammonia with Safe and Sound Secondary Brines
Author: Ray Johnson

Ammonia refrigerated secondary brines such as calcium and sodium chloride have been in service for decades. Block ice making tanks, skating rinks, and underground cold storages have used calcium chloride brine. Inhibited ethylene and propylene glycol have been applied in banana and tomato ripening rooms and a myriad of hydronic heating and cooling systems. The return of the ice builder and other thermal storage concepts makes 32-34°F water a possible secondary refrigerant. No one can argue that these fluids in closed loops are not safe. But are secondary brine refrigerants both energy and cost efficient?
Condensation-Induced Hydraulic Shock 
Author: Lane Loyko

The purpose of this report is to offer a further clarification of the mechanism involved in hydraulic shock incidents. It has been three years since my last presentation on this subject. Since that time, I have had the opportunity to examine more failures and to extend the depth of examinations. One of the failures investigated was an ammonia spill that was widely publicized at a pizza plant in southern Ohio. For that case a computer model was generated to simultaneously solve several differential equations in order to make a determination of the transient ammonia temperatures, pressures and slug velocity which could have existed in the system during the incident. Based on a knowledge of the plant and the computer-generated data, it was possible to rule out certain event sequences and focus in on the other more probable ones. This made it possible to determine the most likely cause of the failure with a high degree of certainty.
Relative Performance of Aluminum and Galvanized Steel Evaporators 
Author: Mark C. Stencel, Gary W. Price and Mark G. Strauss, Ph.D.

While both aluminum and galvanized steel evaporators are widely used in industrial refrigeration, a general disparity of opinion exists within the industry regarding the influence of the material of construction on evaporator performance. The primary goal of the study undertaken was to develop a model for predicting evaporator performance using widely accepted engineering calculations, design characteristics inherent in industrial evaporators and the differences in the physical characteristics of materials. Further, the validity of such a model was substantiated through independent testing of identical coils (excluding material of construction) at the test facilities of a major university. These tests were conducted with the intent of minimizing the influence of variables associated with refrigeration and focusing solely on the relative heat transfer performance of evaporator coils manufactured of two different materials.
An Appraisal of Ammonia as an Alternative Refrigerant in Light of the CFC and GWP Situation
Author: S.M. Miner

Probably the major roadblock or hurdle to overcome in reopening consideration of NH3 is the "Bad Press" it has received. All refrigerants require safety considerations NH3, however, seems to get the major headlines when accidents occur. Background information, history, theoretical information and citing of research and developments - all do not substitute for the "real world of experience". Hence, a key objective of this paper is to "prove the case" by citing recent jobs to illustrate rapidly developing actual experience. These are real cases. Concentration has been placed on air conditioning and more unusual recent applications. Hopefully, this will demonstrate that Ammonia can be applied in areas formerly considered unique to the HC's.
Environment Friendly, Energy Optimized Industrial Refrigerating Compressors 
Author: Holger Tychsen and Ole Lassen

This article deals primarily with the conditions of energy and environment for compressors with a swept volume between 100 and 5,000 m3/h, which means in industrial refrigeration plants within the food sector. In such plants reciprocating and screw compressors are mainly used, therefore we have concentrated on these two types of compressors. In any given example we have endeavoured to include the latest developments in this field and describe conditions that have only been sporadically mentioned in the literature available.
Environmental Impact: Technology of the 90’s
Author: Jeffrey C. Graby and Craig L. Patterson, P.E.

Technological change today in our industry is no longer driven by long hours of research and development, new equipment, or startling scientific breakthroughs. Rather the catalyst today in our current business plans is environmental impact, agency regulations and community awareness. The global concerns for development, handling, and regulation concerning today's refrigerant usage now forces new issues to be immediately addressed. Recently, Mr. Lloyd Nieman, Manager of Utilities Systems Engineering from Pennsylvania State University, attended an air conditioning seminar outlining the current environmental impact of CFC's and HCFC's on ozone and the proposed phase-out schedule. Mr. Nieman recognized he was responsible today to address impending phase-out schedules and evaluate an economical and well-engineered solution. During this talk, ammonia was discussed as a possible alternate refrigerant for air conditioning. His consultant was next tasked to thoroughly evaluate options. This paper will discuss the recent installation of two (2) 1000 TR R-22 water chiller packages designed for future conversion to ammonia refrigerant at Milton S. Hershey Medical Center of the Pennsylvania State University in Hershey, PA. The first part addresses the design, component selection and compatibility of R-717 and R-22 without need for major change when converting to ammonia. The second part addresses provisions undertaken by the consultant in building design to accommodate mandated codes, thus allowing future refrigerant change from R-22 to R-717.
Thermal Storage Vertical Falling Film Shell-and-Tube Ammonia Evaporator 
Author: Zahid H. Ayub, Ph.D., P.E.

With a proven track record of this exchanger it can be used for various other processes where near freezing fluid is required. With floor space becoming a big issue in the present days, this exchanger can certainly be an attractive alternate to any other system. The chiller can also be used in air-conditioning applications. Chilled water can result in a lower fan power consumption. Since the flow is gravity controlled, there is no pressure drop, whereas, for a same flow condition a horizontal shell and tube would encounter at least 10-15 psi through the chiller. Because of ammonia there is no danger to the ozone layer. The chiller itself could be located in an isolated room. If used in a chilled water storage system, the unit could chill water to near freezing temperature at off peak hours and then be used during peak hours, hence, resulting in free energy. Yet another application could be carbo-cooling. The bottom head could be equipped with carbon dioxide injector. The mix can then be directly fed at the top. This would result in both cooling and carbonation.
New Technologies for Refrigeration Control Valves 
Author: Charles C. Hansen III and John J. Sluga

As we, the manufacturers, design engineers, design/build and installation contractors, and users of industrial refrigeration equipment enter the 21st century the demands confronting our products, designs and operations are becoming overwhelming. These demands are not only a result of advanced technological needs but also of the ever growing social awareness we encounter. Increased system capacities, design complexity, automation and a shortage of qualified operating personnel require our systems and components be continuously regulated. Socially, the increasing number of regulatory agencies and regulations are placing restrictions and requirements on all of us never before imagined. In addition, new developments in the field of industrial refrigeration control valves are the result of the following: New creative industrial refrigeration systems and applications, New piping needs for optimum energy usage, safety, and product control, Newly developed materials available for control valve construction, Advanced ideas, machining processes, and computer aided design facilities for new valve concepts.
Reducing Hazardous Waste Production: Cleaning Ammonia Compressor Oils 
Author: Al Harrell and Al Gordon

My reason for being here with you today is to review with you the exciting technology and track record which U.S. Petrolon Industrial has for reducing waste production, improving equipment protection, returning a waste commodity back to like new status, and getting more money back in your bottom line. This is a proprietary system, so references to our company are unavoidable, even though we have tried to hold this to be reasonable.
Ammonia System Oil Management Techniques 
Author: Rudy Stegmann, P.E.

This paper will express the concerns for continued industry growth in the development and implementation of ecologically appropriate, more efficient methods of oil management in industrial refrigeration systems. Gone are the days when oil was cheap, labor costs minimal and there was little or no concern regarding the disposal of used lubricant.
Preparing for OSHA’s Process Safety Management (PSM) Regulations 
Author: Peter R. Jordan

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) proposed process safety management (PSM) regulations are scheduled to be finalized in early 1992. These regulations are designed to protect employees from the risks associated with accidental releases of highly hazardous chemicals. Anhydrous ammonia is included on OSHA's list of hazardous chemicals because of its relatively high toxicity and its high volatility. The proposed regulations will impact both new and existing ammonia refrigeration facilities. OSHA's PSM regulations will require the development of a comprehensive management program involving twelve process safety elements. The major objective of this paper will be to summarize these twelve elements, and to present a step-by-step approach to address three elements which are key in the early stages of developing a PSM program. Compliance with any PSM regulation is a challenging task, but with proper planning and commitment, the task can be simplified and result in a safer operation.
Safety in Ammonia Refrigeration Related to Three Case Studies in Welding Failures 
Author: Anders Lindborg

Refrigeration techniques have developed considerably over the last few years. With interest in thermodynamics, improvements in the efficiency of compressors, functions in controls, maintenance and supervision are self-evident. All these areas are dealt with in other commissions within the IIR. On the other hand the refrigeration industry has not paid the same attention to pressure vessels and pipe lines in ammonia plants. As a comparison the interest in other industrial applications, such as nuclear power, offshore, chemical process has been far higher when relating to materials, joining techniques and quality control. In refrigeration it is taken for granted that incidents seldom occur, as the plants are working with very low internal pressures, which result in low stress. In spite of this, accidents occur, some of which may have serious consequences. Three cases from our industry are presented.
Building Code Recognition of Alternative Refrigerants 
Author: Billy R. Manning, P.E.

An update on whether R-123 or R-134a is covered by the UMC, UBC, ASHRAE 15 or 34. Describes how the codes are changed. Also details the status of ammonia in these codes. Mentions the compliance program and producer involvement.
Coping with Codes 
Author: William V. Richards

It remains to be seen how the Toxic Gas Ordinances will be applied to ammonia refrigeration plants. The proposed revisions to the Uniform Mechanical Code and the Uniform Fire Code have an excellent chance of being favorably accepted. If adopted in the Uniform Codes, the Standard (SBCCI) and National (BOCA) Codes are likely to accept similar requirements. The effort to see the Uniform Code revisions adopted will take diligent attention of the individuals and organizations involved for the next two years. In regard to OSHA Process Safety Management rules, many large refrigeration operations are already performing some of these procedures. Some may resent having regulators telling us how to manage safety in our plants. On the other hand, the application of the Process Safety Management rules will require operators to address potentially unsafe situations in their facilities. This will reduce accidents in our plants and should result in fewer headlines about ammonia incidents. It seems inevitable that ammonia will be regulated in some form. We must make the effort to influence the regulations by helping to write good Codes and Standards. Then we must educate Building Inspectors, Health Officials, and Fire Chiefs in the practical application of safety provisions in ammonia refrigeration.
Refrigerating Effect Vent Systems Technology: A New Safety Tool for the Ammonia Refrigeration Industry 
Author: Douglas E. Phillips

The purpose of the REVS was three fold. First, to develop a flexible ammonia safety system with varying capabilities and components to enable the ammonia refrigeration industry diverse latitude of application design to provide operational and emergency safe system designs. Second, to fulfill the safety and code requirements as mandated by our industry's exemplary safety records and concern for the public right to a safe clean environment. Third, to minimize the human error and dependency factor during emergency situations.