1995 IIAR Technical Papers
  San Diego, CA
 17th Annual Meeting

Welding Procedure Qualifications for Low Temperature Applications
Author: Kent S. Durenberger

The ammonia industry needs to ensure that all ammonia refrigeration systems are installed and tested safely. Every system needs to be in compliance with all national, state, and local governing codes. End users should require their installing contractors to have correct, qualified welding procedures before any work begins. There are two commonly accepted welding codes in use in this industry. They are Section IX of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel (BPV) Code published by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and the D10.9 Pipe Welding Code published by the American Welding Society (AWS). In most areas of the United States, compliance with the AWS Pipe Welding Code is acceptable, but some states require compliance with Section IX of the BPV code. The major difference between the two codes is that the AWS Pipe Welding Code allows the use of pre-qualified procedures while the BPV does not. In addition, chapter III, paragraph 523.1 of ASME B31.5, Refrigeration Piping Code, dictates how materials for low temperature refrigeration piping shall be tested. This paper deals specifically with low temperature refrigeration welding procedure qualifications .
1895 to 1995: A Century of Ammonia Advancements
Author: John S. Scherer

A century of innovations is reflected in the Los Angeles Cold Storage Company, whose history in turn reflects the evolution of an industry. Future improvements will be novel and may surprise us, but the trend, toward improved safety, service, and efficiency, will remain the same.
Energy Efficient Motors: Findings of a Failure Study and Recommendations for their Application
Author: John D. Kueck and Pedro J. Otaduy

Because of its experience in motor failure investigations and in determining root causes of motor failures in critical applications, Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) was approached by a Food Products Manufacturer (FPM) to investigate the systematic rapid failure of some motors in critical parts of one of their manufacturing facilities. The motors of concern were used in several applications, including pumps and ammonia compressors. This paper describes the findings of the collaborative effort between the FPM and ORNL. The following paper provides application considerations for motors.
Application Considerations for Electric Induction Motors
Author: Robert C. Schubauer

In 1888, Nikola Tesla invented the induction motor, known as the "workhorse of industry." The motor is simple, rugged and requires very little maintenance. In order to optimize the performance of a motor and to insure long, trouble-free operation, it must be applied properly. The purpose of this paper is to define the makeup of a comprehensive motor specification and to discuss those environmental and power supply characteristics that are important in properly applying the motor to its load. In addition, this paper will briefly discuss the "high-efficiency" motor, how it differs from the standard design, and the benefits that it can provide under certain conditions.
Low Charge Ammonia Shell & Tube Chillers: A Comparison of Flooded, Recirculated and Spray Chillers
Author: Marcos Rente Braz, P.E.

The intention of this paper is to present guidelines for low-charge ammonia shell and tube chiller applications. The advantages of reducing the total volume of ammonia in the system and the low operational cost, as well as the reliability of design and construction for units fabricated per the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1 and standards of the Tubular Exchangers Manufacturers Association (TEMA), make these chillers an attractive option.
Re-Occurring Batch Loads or How to Best Chill Martinis
Author: Thomas Pakradooni

Selection and sizing of ice builders for "sweet water" applications in dairies started with a heavy emphasis on the availability of space. Where do you want the unit located and how much space do you have in that area?", were questions that frequently determined the size of the ice builder utilized. Selection of an ice builder today is much more sophisticated. Within this paper, several examples will be illustrated of the way engineered latent storage systems can provide substantial benefits. Load leveling, load shifting, and optimizing refrigeration equipment selections are all attainable through the use of ice builders in total system designs.
Tailored Training, The Silver Lining of PSM
Author: Bob St. Jean

After becoming familiar with the Process Safety Management regulation, we can better understand the benefits of PSM. Especially in the area of training, PSM provides excellent tools to educate operators on the hazards and complexity of their particular systems. There are many other challenges as well in educating operators with different learning abilities and learning styles. With rapidly developing technology, additional tools for educating the operators of ammonia refrigeration systems in safety and the efficient utilization of equipment are now easily accessible. You can make training, tailored to your employees and systems, the silver lining of your PSM program.
Modern Screw Compressors Applied to Liquid Chillers Using Ammonia as a Refrigerant
Author: Lennart Jansson

This paper deals with the design criteria and the construction of a modern low-charge ammonia liquid chiller. Nowadays ammonia is not a refrigerant used solely for industrial applications. We have given an example of an installation of a low-charge ammonia chiller in a hospital building, which proves that ammonia may also be used in a safe way in sensitive environments.
Office Building Ammonia Heat Pump System
Author: Katsumi Fujima, Kazuo Hirashima, Kazuhiro Mizuno, Mayuko Awata, Yujiro Shinoda and Vito Lampugnano

Considering all the published data on this subject, this paper will only touch upon the advantages and disadvantages of ammonia compared to the existing and proposed refrigerants. This paper is presented to show how a functional ammonia heat pump system can be designed, built, installed, tested, and operated safely, with good operating characteristics.
Large Tonnage Ammonia Water Chilling Systems for the Trigeneration of Energy
Author: Donal F. Ballou

This presentation will provide an insight into a unique application of modern equipment that will interest all large facilities requiring the simultaneous generation of chilled water and heat energy that also can benefit from in-house electric generation. The results after over three years of operational experience prove that these systems are no more difficult to operate than typical centrifugal compressor water chilling units using CFC and/or HCFC refrigerants. These systems can also provide short and long term economic advantages unparalleled in large central plant energy generation.
Industrial HVAC Using Ammonia Refrigeration and Thermal Storage (Two Case Studies)
Author: David Lueders

Ammonia is a very efficient and proven refrigerant with no affect on the ozone layer. It is most commonly used in large refrigeration plants, especially in the food industry. However, ammonia can be and has been successfully applied to industrial HVAC applications. This paper presents two case studies of successful implementation of ammonia for industrial HVAC applications. Thermal storage was a key ingredient of these two projects and was the primary reason the projects attracted significant utility company financial incentives in the form of cash rebates.
Compliance Auditing for Process Safety Management
Author:  Steven Tyler

The compliance audit section of the IlAR Guide to the Implementation of Process Safety Management (PSM) for Ammonia Refrigeration provides a good method for conducting the compliance audit that is required for facilities subject to the PSM requirements. Forms are also included in the Guide to establish a report of the findings of the audit and to establish a certification of the audit. Conducting the compliance audit should improve the PSM programs of the affected processes and provide additional improvements in plant safety.
Managing a Process Safety Management Inspection
Author:  Neil Mulvey

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation (29 CFR 1910.1 19) has been in effect for almost three years. State level risk management programs in New Jersey, California and Delaware have been in effect for over six years. These regulations have had a profound impact on both the long-term planning and the day-to-day operations of ammonia refrigeration facilities. Through hard work, planning, and the commitment of resources, many ammonia refrigeration facilities are beginning to realize the benefits of PSM. Well developed and implemented PSM programs offer the following benefits: operations with fewer unanticipated ammonia releases; reduction in employee exposure to ammonia; improvements in ability to detect and respond to ammonia releases; reduction in unanticipated downtime of ammonia refrigeration equipment; increased sensitivity to the hazards of, and installed safeguards for, handling ammonia; compliance with state/federal process safety regulations; avoidance of fines, penalties, and negative exposure that results from non-compliance. This paper will discuss in greater detail some of these benefits, and in particular the aspect of governmental inspections of ammonia refrigeration facilities.
Risk Management Plans for Ammonia Refrigeration Facilties
Author:  Lynn Teuscher, Walter G. England, Lee Pyle, Greg Hauser

This paper describes some of the generic information that has been obtained during the development of over thirty RMPPs for ammonia refrigeration systems operating throughout the state of California. The initial section of this paper briefly describes the requirements of an RMPP and the methodology that was utilized to meet these requirements. The second section reviews the requirements for the proposed EPA RMP. The third section briefly describes a generic ammonia refrigeration system to provide the basis for later discussion on improved safety recommendations resulting from completion of the RMPPs. Finally, the most common mitigation recommendations that have been adopted to reduce the potential impacts of accidental ammonia releases from these systems are discussed.
Assessing the Impact of Accidental Ammonia Releases - USEPA's Risk Management Plan Requirements
Author: Peter R. Jordan

On October 20, 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published their long-anticipated proposed regulations for Risk Management Programs (RMP) for Chemical Accidental Release Prevention (40 CFR Part 68). Like OSHA's Process Safety Management (PSM) standard (29 CFR 191 0.1 IS), EPA's RMP requirements are designed to prevent or minimize the consequences of major uncontrolled releases, fires and explosions. The key difference, however, is that while the PSM standard is designed to protect employees, the RMP requirements are designed to protect the community and the environment. This important distinction in the intent of the two regulations is a major factor in new, far-reaching requirements of the EPA proposed requirements over and above those identified in the OSHA standard. The EPA's RMP requirements can be organized into the following general categories: registration; hazard assessment; prevention program; emergency response program; risk management plan. This paper will focus on the hazard assessment portion of the proposed regulations.
Relief Devices Revisited
Author: Richard J. Krause

Let's review some of the factors to consider when selecting and installing relief valves: Design the pressure vessel to permit the relief valve to be set at least 25% above the maximum system pressure. Select a relief valve with sufficient capacity. Select a relief valve suitable for the type of refrigerant used. Use the proper size and length of discharging piping. Do not discharge relief valves prior to installation or when pressure testing the system. On large systems, use a three-way valve and two relief valves. Install the relief valve directly to the pressure vessel. Install the relief valve above the liquid level. Install the valves where they are accessible for inspection and repair. Make sure that you check to see that the valves and installation meet existing local, and I emphasize LOCAL CODES, because these may vary from ANSI Codes. Remember refrigerant relief devices are designed strictly for safety and are not functional or operating controls. A safety-relief valve is designed to relieve positively at its set pressure for one crucial occasion without prior leakage. Properly designed and maintained, they will provide years of trouble-free service.
A Review of Inlet Air Cooling Systems for Increasing Gas Turbine Performance
Author: Chuck Kohlenberger, P.E.

A brief comparison will be made of a traditional single-temperature refrigerated coil system to a new patented higher efficiency, multi-temperature, multi-stage, cascade, triple coil system. Primary refrigeration systems (evaporating refrigerant within air cooling coils) and secondary refrigeration systems (recirculated chilled water/brine within cooling coils) will be reviewed and discussed.