New Refrigerant Quality Measurement and Demand Defrost Metho
New Refrigerant Quality Measurement and Demand Defrost Methods (2017) - New measurement methods make it possible to design energy-efficient Low Charge Evaporator Systems Controlling both the injection of refrigerant according to the Evaporator load and Defrost cycle “demand defrost” while also increasing safety aspect when using natural refrigerants as Ammonia. Requirements to reduce global warming (GWP) and CO2 emissions lead to a desire to use natural refrigerants. This has initiated numerous new efforts and developments worldwide. Application of new measurement principles and design methods in the refrigeration industry may significantly impact the achievement of lower global electrical energy consumption by realizing reductions of 20 to 40% (Jensen, 2015). At the same time safety may be increased by minimizing the refrigerant amount through “LOW CHARGE SYSTEMS” with a charge reduction factor of 30 to 50 times for Ammonia DX systems (Nelson, 2013). The heat transfer coefficient within the evaporators is highly dependent on the flow pattern, mass flux and the Vapor Quality. This paper describes a new sensor system for optimizing Evaporator Control including description of the measurement principle for measuring the phase of refrigerant as Vapor Quality with an “X” sensor that measures degree of dryness and a demand defrost sensor measuring ice build-up on the air cooler surface. The paper also provides information about sensor design, laboratory testing, system design, field testing, application, summary and conclusions.
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