Transcritical Carbon Dioxide and Ammonia: Energy Efficiency
Transcritical Carbon Dioxide and Ammonia: Energy Efficiency and Basic Capital Cost Comparison for Industrial Refrigeration Systems (2020) - Carbon dioxide (CO2, R744) has for years been used as an alternative to hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in numerous refrigeration market sectors due to its environmentally friendly characteristics and its performance in many applications. But until quite recently, the lack of large-scale transcritical CO2 components has limited the application of carbon dioxide in the industrial refrigeration segment, leaving anhydrous ammonia (NH3, R717) as the preferred choice for larger duty applications (e.g., >125 TR or 1,500 kBtu/h).

In recent years, however, significant technological advances—such as large-displacement, sixcylinder compressors and next-generation ejectors—have enabled cost-effective transcritical CO2 solutions for industrial refrigeration. This paper compares the performance among various CO2 and ammonia technologies applied to an industrial CO2 refrigeration system with a capacity of 1,000 TR (12,000 kBtu/h).
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