The Use of Carbon Dioxide/Ammonia Cascade Systems For Low Te
The Use of Carbon Dioxide/Ammonia Cascade Systems For Low Temperature Food Refrigeration (2000)-This paper describes a system providing air temperatures in the range -30°C (-22°F) to -50°C (-58°F) for large freezing duties without pumping ammonia through production areas. Carbon dioxide is compressed to a saturation temperature of about -20°C (-4°F) from evaporation temperatures as low as -55°C (-67°F), and a packaged ammonia plant is used to condense the carbon dioxide before re-expansion. The key benefits are a more compact and efficient installation, particularly with much smaller compressors and with small pipes in the production area, and more efficient operation at the low temperatures. The ammonia charge is significantly smaller than would be required for a two-stage ammonia system, and consequently the regulatory requirements for a large facility are simplified. The paper includes a technical evaluation of a current project, and the operational and financial benefits provided by the cascade system.
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