Estimating Refrigerant Release Quantities
Estimating Refrigerant Release Quantities (2008)-End users are continuing to make strides toward increasing refrigeration system safety. Programs such as OSHA's Process Safety Management (PSM) standard and EPA?s Risk Management Program (RMP) have provided a framework for end users to drive continuous improvement in plant refrigeration system safety. Nevertheless, incidents and accidents involving the unintended and uncontrolled loss of refrigerant from pressure-containing parts of a system can and do occur. In this paper, we review techniques suitable for use in estimating the quantity of refrigerant lost as a result of a leak. First principles models are presented for vapor-only, liquid-only, and flashing liquid leak scenarios. Qualitative indications as to what constitutes a reportable quantity of ammonia lost during an incident are also provided. The paper concludes by providing a number of examples of leak quantity estimates for various leak scenarios.
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